The monomer units of DNA are nucleotides, and the polymer is known as a “polynucleotide.” Each nucleotide consists of a 5–carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen containing base attached to the sugar, and a phosphate group.
Watch out a lot more about it. Hereof, what is attached to the 5 carbon of deoxyribose in DNA?
Deoxyribose is a ribose derivative in which an oxygen atom is missing from one carbon; the carbon was deoxygenated. DNA contains deoxyribose nucleotides while RNA contains ribose nucleotides. A phosphate group is attached to the 5‘ carbon position, the carbon atom that is outside the sugar ring.
which Deoxyribose carbon can be attached to a purine? Aldoses present in nucleic acids. Both ribose or deoxyribose, through their carbon 1′ are linked to nitrogen 9 of the purine or nitrogen 1 of the pyrimidine bases by a β-glycosidic bond, which allows their free rotation.
Similarly, you may ask, what carbon does the phosphate group attached to in DNA?
Attaching a phosphate group The other repeating part of the DNA backbone is a phosphate group. A phosphate group is attached to the sugar molecule in place of the -OH group on the 5′ carbon.
What is 5 and 3 in DNA structure?
2 Answers. The 5′ and 3‘ mean “five prime” and “three prime”, which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA’s sugar backbone. The 5‘ carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3‘ carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. This asymmetry gives a DNA strand a “direction”.
Who discovered DNA first?
Many people believe that American biologist James Watson and English physicist Francis Crick discovered DNA in the 1950s. In reality, this is not the case. Rather, DNA was first identified in the late 1860s by Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher.
Why must a purine pair with a pyrimidine?
Explanation: Pairing of a specific purine to a pyrimidine is due to the structure and properties of these bases. Matching base pairs ( purines and pyrimidines ) form hydrogen bonds. A and T have two sites where they form hydrogen bonds to each other.
Why is the nucleus called the control center of the cell?
NUCLEUS IS CALLED CONTROL CENTRE OF THE CELL BECAUSE IT PERFORMS TWO MAIN PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS: 1. Controls cellular activities through directing synthesis of particular proteins and enzymes. The control centre of the cell is the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus contains genetic material in the form of DNA.
Why is it called 2 Deoxyribose?
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2–deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C=O)−(CH2)−(CHOH)3−H. Its name indicates that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is derived from the sugar ribose by loss of an oxygen atom.
What are three parts of a DNA nucleotide?
- Nitrogenous Base. Purines and pyrimidines are the two categories of nitrogenous bases.
- Pentose Sugar. In DNA, the sugar is 2′-deoxyribose.
- Phosphate Group. A single phosphate group is PO43–.
Where is the deoxyribose in DNA?
Ribose, found in RNA, is a “normal” sugar, with one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom. Deoxyribose, found in DNA, is a modified sugar, lacking one oxygen atom (hence the name “deoxy”).
Is DNA a protein?
Today, proteins are formed following instructions given by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which in turn is synthesized by specific enzymes that are proteins. DNA contains the genetic information of all living organisms. Proteins are large molecules made up by 20 small molecules called amino acids.
What do 5 and 3 mean?
order by. 20. The 5′ and 3‘ mean “five prime” and “three prime”, which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA’s sugar backbone. The 5‘ carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3‘ carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. This asymmetry gives a DNA strand a “direction”.
Why does DNA have a 5 and 3 end?
The 5′ and 3‘ mean “five prime” and “three prime”, which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA’s sugar backbone. The 5‘ carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3‘ carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. This asymmetry gives a DNA strand a “direction”.
What are the 4 nitrogen bases?
The four nitrogen bases found in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Each of these bases are often abbreviated a single letter: A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), T (thymine).
What forms the backbone of DNA chain?
A sugar-phosphate backbone (alternating grey-dark grey) joins together nucleotides in a DNA sequence. The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule.
What does the phosphate group do in DNA?
A phosphate group is just a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms, but it has many important roles. Along with sugars and bases, it makes up nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA. As part of energy carriers, like ATP, it provides energy for moving our muscles.