What is Pachymeningitis?

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Pachymeningitis is characterized as the inflammation of outer membrane of the brain (dura mater).

what causes Pachymeningitis?

Pachymeningitis is an inflammatory process of the dura-mater, which may lead to fibrous thickening. It can be caused by a variety of diseases, including sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and syphilis1.

what is idiopathic hypertrophic Pachymeningitis?

1 Introduction. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) is a rare disease caused by thickening of either the intracranial or spinal dura mater, or rarely both simultaneously. Chronic headache, multiple cranial nerve (CN) palsies, and cervicodynia are the most common clinical manifestations. [1,2]

is Pachymeningitis fatal?

[30],[31] Cranial neuropathies occur mostly due to contiguous involvement from sinuses. Associated mononeuritis multiplex has been reported in upto 28% of the patients. The progression of this disease is more rapid and potentially fatal as compared to hypertrophic pachymeningitis of uncertain etiology.

What does dural thickening mean?

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare form of diffuse inflammatory disease that causes thickening of the dura mater. It can involve the cranial or the spinal dura or both. This report describes two cases of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis and briefly discusses the clinical and radiographic, findings.

What is diffuse dural enhancement?

Diffuse Dural Enhancement (DDE) is a finding on MRI scan of the brain. There is a white “high signal” ring around the brain corresponding to the location of the dura. It is usually detected using gadolinium, but a FLAIR imaging can also be used. (

What is meningeal fibrosis?

Histologic examination of biopsies from two patients demonstrated fibrosis of the meninges characterized by granulation tissue and collagen deposition. Meningeal fibrosis is a rare postshunt phenomenon that may mimic chronic subdural hematoma on unenhanced CT and MR.

What is spontaneous intracranial hypotension?

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a condition in which the fluid pressure inside the skull is lower than normal. The brain and spinal cord are covered by a tough, watertight membrane called the dura. Inside the dura is the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a liquid that bathes and cushions the brain and spinal cord.