What are the functions of the macula densa quizlet? The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule.
what is the significance of Juxtaglomerular apparatus?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a specialized structure formed by the distal convoluted tubule and the glomerular afferent arteriole. It is located near the vascular pole of the glomerulus and its main function is to regulate blood pressure and the filtration rate of the glomerulus.
What is a GFR test? GFR – A blood test measures how much blood your kidneys filter each minute, which is known as your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urine Albumin – A urine test checks for albumin in your urine. Albumin is a protein that can pass into the urine when the filters in the kidneys are damaged.
what do Juxtaglomerular cells monitor?
Urinary System: Juxtaglomerular complex The afferent arteriole in this region contains specialised secretory cells (smooth muscle cells) called juxtaglomerular cells, that secrete renin. These cells do two things: They monitor blood pressure, by measuring how much the arteriole wall is stretched.
Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
Reabsorption. Reabsorption takes place mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron . Nearly all of the water, glucose, potassium, and amino acids lost during glomerular filtration reenter the blood from the renal tubules.
what is the function of the macula densa cells of the Juxtaglomerular complex?
Macula densa cells in the distal nephron, according to the classic paradigm, are salt sensors that generate paracrine chemical signals in the juxtaglomerular apparatus to control vital kidney functions, including renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin release.
Why does renin increase GFR?
Renin is produced in the kidneys. When blood flow to the kidneys is low, there is an increase in renin production. Angiotensin II acts on the heart and blood vessels to increase blood pressure/flow. Increased blood pressure increases perfusion of the kidneys, and therefore increased glomerular filtration.
What are the three components of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of three cell types: the macula densa cells, the juxtaglomerular cells and the extraglomerular mesangial cells.
Does renin increase GFR?
The macula densa responds by decreasing ATP release, and there is a subsequent decrease in calcium from the smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole. The ensuing result is vasodilation, and increased renin release in an attempt to increase GFR.
What are mesangial cells?
Mesangial cells are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus. The primary function of mesangial cells is to remove trapped residues and aggregated protein from the basement membrane thus keeping the filter free of debris.
What type of capillaries make up the glomerulus?
A renal corpuscle is the blood-filtering component of the nephron of the kidney. It consists of a glomerulus – a tuft of capillaries composed of endothelial cells, and a glomerular capsule known as Bowman’s capsule.
Where is angiotensin produced?
Angiotensin I is produced by the action of renin (an enzyme produced by the kidneys) on a protein called angiotensinogen, which is formed by the liver. Angiotensin I is transformed into angiotensin II in the blood by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
How does the afferent Arteriole control blood pressure?
The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems. They play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure as a part of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism. The afferent arterioles branch from the renal artery, which supplies blood to the kidneys.
What is Juxtaglomerular complex?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is named because it is next to (juxta-) the glomerulus.
What cells detect nacl concentration in urine?
FIGURE 8.4. Schematic view of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Macula densa cells detect changes in luminal sodium chloride concentration through a complicated series of ion transport–related intracellular events.